Online Peer Mediation Resources - Research

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Conflict Resolution Education: The Field, the Findings, and the Future - Tricia Jones, 2004

To sustain program development and funding of CRE, questions of efficacy are paramount. This is truer now more than ever before given the emphasis in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, which dictates that all instruction in academic and nonacademic areas (including prevention interventions) must be theoretically based and rigorously evaluated. To what extent does CRE make the differences so hoped for by educators and parents? To what extent are CRE programs meeting the standards set under No Child Left Behind, and therefore worthy of federal support dollars? This article provides an answer within certain parameters. First, CRE is defined and distinguished from related efforts to clarify the nature of program evaluation research that should be included in this review. Second, structural elements that are expected to influence CRE effectiveness are detailed as a framework for the presentation of research. And third, the overall assessment of CRE field research is used as a foundation for discussion of needed future research. This review clearly indicates that although there is more work to be done, the research clearly demonstrates that CRE approaches yield impressive results.

Academic learning plus Social-emotional learning - Roger P. Weissberg and Jason Cascarino, 2013

This article describes research which focuses on positive outcomes for schools’ academic indicators, finding a correlation with emphasis on Social Emotional Learning. For example, a summary of 15 years of research on school reform by Bryk and colleagues (2010) identified five essential supports for effective school improvement: strong leadership, solid parent and community involvement, development of professional capacity, strong instructional guidance and materials, and a learning climate that reflects SEL components by being safe, welcoming, stimulating, and nurturing to all students. These supports produced substantial gains in student performance in reading and mathematics.

Changing school Climate One Mediator at a Time: Year - One Analysis of a School-based Mediation Program - Christina Cassinerio and Pamela S. Lane Garon, 2006

An urban middle school–university mediation program that emphasizes mentoring of middle school peer mediators by university students is described. Student social-cognitive dispositions, perceptions of school climate, conflict strategy choices, and related conflict behaviors are analyzed on the basis of assessments administered after one year of program implementation.

What does Anyone Know about Peer Mediation? Challenging Mediation as route to School Improvement - Mervyn Flecknoe, 2004

Peer mediation is a popular way to manage conflict in schools. Typically, a school trains a small group (cadre) of pupils who offer mediation services to other pupils at break and lunchtime. The article examines challenges research published in the last 10 years and concludes that this is could be a disappointing approach. The author argues, from the literature, that schools are more likely to reduce bullying and low-level disruption by making a more comprehensive study of conflict a central part of the curriculum of the school – for parents, for teachers and for pupils.

A Meta-Analysis of After-School Programs That Seek to Promote Personal and Social Skills in Children and Adolescents - Joseph A. Durlak et. al., 2010

A comprehensive meta-analysis of after-school programs that seek to enhance the personal and social skills of children and adolescents indicated that, compared to controls, participants demonstrated significant increases in their self-perceptions and bonding to school, positive social behaviors, school grades and levels of academic achievement, and significant reductions in problem behaviors. The presence of four recommended practices associated with previously effective skill training (SAFE: sequenced, active, focused, and explicit) moderated several program outcomes. One important implication of current findings is that ASPs should contain components to foster the personal and social skills of youth because youth can benefit in multiple ways if these components are offered. The second implication is that further research is warranted on identifying program characteristics that can help us understand why some programs are more successful than others.

The Impact of Enhancing Students’ Social and Emotional Learning: A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Universal Interventions - Joseph Durlak et. al., 2011

This article presents findings from a comprehensive meta-analysis of 213 school-based, universal social and emotional learning (SEL) programs involving 270,034 kindergarten through high school students. Compared to controls, SEL participants demonstrated significantly improved social and emotional skills, attitudes, behavior, and academic performance that reflected an 11-percentile-point gain in achievement. School teaching staff successfully conducted SEL programs. The use of 4 recommended practices for developing skills and the presence of implementation problems moderated program outcomes. The findings add to the growing empirical evidence regarding the positive impact of SEL programs. Policy makers, educators, and the public can contribute to healthy development of children by supporting the incorporation of evidence-based SEL programming into standard educational practice.

Does peer-mediation really work? Effects of Conflict Resolution and Peer-mediation training on High School Students’ Conflicts - Abbas Turnuklu et. al., 2009

The purpose of this international research was to examine the effectiveness of Conflict Resolution and Peer Mediation (CRPM) training on high school students’ interpersonal conflicts. The study was conducted in a high school located in a low SES part of Izmir, Turkey. During the two-year study, a total of 830 students from 28 classrooms received training. Data were collected through peer mediation forms filled by the mediator students following the mediation sessions. Majority of the conflicts referred to mediation were physical, verbal and non-verbal violence, relationship and communication conflicts, and conflicts of interest. Of the 253 mediation sessions; 94.9% resulted in resolution and 5.1% in no-resolution. This result indicates that the peer mediation had been effective in constructive and peaceful resolution of high school student conflicts.

Effect of Conflict Resolution and Peer-mediation Training on Empathy Skills - F. Sulen Sahin, 2011

This international research is an experimental study that depends on Pre-test/ Post-test Model with Control Group. Conflict resolution and peer mediation training program was applied to the experimental group throughout 10 weeks. According to the result of the statistical analysis it is observed that there is a meaningful increase in the level of empathic skills of students who are trained in the experimental group. In the light of the findings researchers suggests that conflict resolution and peer mediation training should be incorporated in the curriculum of Psychological Counseling and Guidance department.

Mediator Mentors: Improving School Climate – Nurturing Student Disposition - Pamela S. Lane Garon and Tim Richardson, 2003

Education is in the midst of an essentialist movement, with academic achievement and accountability as primary foci. All empirical and anecdotal evidence tells us that the pursuit of academic achievement requires learning environments which foster civility, safety and connectedness. “Mediator Mentors,” a collaborative research and service project was begun by California State University Fresno faculty and the staff of an elementary school (K-8) in the Central San Joaquin Valley. The purpose of the research was to assess conflict resolution program effects on students (N= 300) and school climate. The purpose of the project was to develop a conflict resolution program that would “fit into the life of the school” and enhance school climate.
Cross-age mentoring is an important component of this collaborative project. University students preparing for roles in helping professions benefit from mediation training and practice. Many of the project mentors are becoming teachers; the rest--counselors and social workers. Elementary students benefit from interaction with university students who are young enough to vividly remember their own, recent public school experience and who themselves care about developing empathy, practicing respectful communication, and cooperation. Assessed were student cognitive and affective perspective taking (mediators and non). Additionally, student perceptions of school safety were explored. This article reports and discusses results after one year of CRE program implementation.

10 Benefits and Key Components of Peer Mediation Programs (Research Paper) - Cynthia O. Thomas, 2008

Peer mediation has repeatedly proven itself by reducing violence in schools. Teachers and administration experience up to a 97% reduction in disciplinary incidences as students take responsibility for their own conflicts and arrive at agreements the majority of which are upheld months later. While self esteem and overall school climate are raised, young people gain skill sets in communication and conflict resolution that they apply with siblings and friends and that may give them an advantage in future employment efforts. Educators are able to apply themselves to teaching and students show marked academic improvement.
Key components to peer mediation programs are examined in the literature. The whole school approach, in which all adults and students are trained in conflict resolution skills is recommended over the cadre approach involving only a small group of trained peer mediators. Teaching about conflict is able to be incorporated into all subjects and is recommended school-wide.

Direct Instruction and Guided Practice Matter in Conflict Resolution and Social-Emotional Learning - Karen DeVoogd, Pamela Lane-Garon and Charles A. Kralowec - Conflict Resolution Quarterly

Seven schools in an economically challenged area of an urban school district in central California implemented mentored peer mediation programs under the guidance of a university–K-12 partnership project, Mediator Mentors. Individual student outcomes for social-cognitive dispositions, perceptions of school climate, conflict strategy choices, and standardized testing results in language arts were analyzed on the basis of assessments administered after one year of program implementation and compared to pretest values generated by student mediators and nonmediators. Attendance and student perceptions of school safety were also examined after a year of peer mediation at the schools. Overall school climate was analyzed with respect to bullying incidence and suspension and expulsion rates before and after one year of program implementation.

Conflict Resolution Quarterly - Additional Research Articles

The following list references articles that have been published relating to Conflict Resolution Education and Peace Studies. Conflict Resolution Quarterly has published the following articles on this or related topics that might be useful to you in your work.

Conflict Management Training for School Administrators

Research in conflict resolution indicates that learnig the skills associated with conflict resolution helps resolve or stop conflict. There is a plethora of programs that have been developped to train corporate leaders, manages, administartors, and students in the art of conflict resolution.

St. Louis Job Corps Peer Mentor and Peer Mediation "Students Helping Students" Program"

Peer resources is at the heart of positive youth development. Trained youth serving in roles such as mentor, tutor, mediator, leader, and educator can change the norms of a school and community.

The Effectiveness of Peer Mediation on Student to Student Conflict

Conflict in school settings continues to be an area of concern for school administrators, teachers, and parents. Conflict between and among students in their school environment is followed by agressive behavior that conitributes to violent actions.

Before and After the Active Shooter Drill

When the now familiar active shooter drill alarm sounds, how do today’s students and teachers know that it truly is a drill and not someone armed with an AK-47 assault weapon coming down the hallway, aiming at children? When a school shooting does tragically occur, the headlines that follow show the images of the victims followed by the face, home and social media posts of the assailant. Reporters interview peers, family, school staff and mental health experts. They ask, “Why did the suspect target this campus?” “What was their motivation?” “Were there any warning signs?” “How could this tragedy have been avoided?”

Intervening in School-Based Youth Conflict

Conflict is created by social interactions in which some person (or persons) thwarts the aspirations of another. The presence of conflict directs attention to the existence of problems, introduces variety in perspectives, and provides an impetus for change. Conflict can also derail goals, damage relationships, and incite violence. Whether a conflict yields benefits or inflicts harm will depend in important part on how it is handled.

What School Counselors Need to Know About Peer Mediation

Teachers have used a variety of strategies to deal with conflict between students in the past. There are several types of peer mediation programs designed to reduce and manage conflict in schools. The type of plans implemented depends on the student's need, school climate, and willingness of all staff members to participate. Teachers need to be willing to participate in the training so they are able to aid students in mediation skills to resolve conflict more independently.

Mediation and Dispute Resolution in Higher Education

Colleges and universities in the United States have long recognized the necessity of dispute resolution for the many different stakeholders who come together to live and work in the relatively confined campus community. Traditionally, student, faculty, and staff disputes were handled by offices of student affairs, human resource departments and legal affairs, or other administrative units. On the student side, administrators or student judges presided over disputes among students, infractions over code of conduct, or other policies, and resolved with either a dismissal of the issue or with imposed sanctions.

Beyond Conflict Resolution Socio-Emotional Learning in Student Mediators

In recent years many schools have introduced peer mediation as a method to improve coexistence. However, little has been done in the way of empirical evaluation of school mediation services. The aim of this research, therefore, was to understand the benefits of mediation from an educational and transformational perspective, by analyzing how it has promoted socio-emotional learning in student mediators

Mediation in Finnish Schools

This is an introduction to a collection of articles in the book Nordic mediation research. The background and history of mediation in the Nordic, or Scandinavian, countries is presented. The areas of mediation practice in the Nordic countries and Nordic mediation research are also introduced.

Peer Mediation as a Viable Option for School Conflict Resolution Programs

Albert Bandura (1977) developed the Social Learning (SL) theory to explain that peoplelearn how to act from each other. They learn through observation, mimicry, and modeling. To explain how adolescent aggression develops he coined the phrase “reciprocal determinism,” meaning a person’s environment affects his behavior and vice versa. Bandura’s theory helps to establish a baseline criterion for interpreting the development of adolescent conflict resolution skills.

Peer Mediation Mechanism and Practice

Faced with the current situation of students' conflicts and campus bullying, this paper explains the mechanism of “peer mediation” and its practice in detail from the perspective of background, strategy, implementation process and effect. Through the development of “peer mediation”, students' conflicts and disputes can be solved at the very beginning, which can effectively avoid the occurrence of more intense conflicts and bullying.

Attitudes of Teachers Who Implement School Mediation Programmes: A Case Study

School mediation (or peer mediation) is an effective practice for resolving student-centered conflicts in the school context. According to the results of this qualitative research conducted at Secondary Education Schools of Western Attica (Greece), an area with particular social characteristics, school mediation programmes are a dynamic process and can contribute to: teamwork, communication and activation of students, changing attitudes and behaviors as well as inclusion of students with behavioral problems. These results are achieved despite the heterogeneity of the education programme followed and the heterogeneity of the population attending them. Under no circumstances, however, the implementation of a school mediation programme can be considered a panacea. On the contrary, it is proposed to be accompanied by other actions that will promote a different management spirit of the school and will improve the school climate.


The purpose of the present study was to develop a scale of teachers’ beliefs towards peer mediation. Validity and reliability studies were conducted for the present study. The sample of the study consisted of 373 randomly selected elementary school teachers working in North Cyprus elementary schools. Within the scope of the scale’s validity studies, contextual validity was determined based on specialist opinions.

Difficulties Conflicting Students Face during Mediation from Peer Mediators’ Perspective

Interpersonal conflicts and disputes are natural and unavoidable in schools. Students often fall into dispute due to different needs, interests, goals and demands and they sometimes negotiate, sometimes strange themselves and other times resort to violence. Peer mediation is one of the most widely used programs that aim to teach students to negotiate their disputes. Basic goal of these peer mediation programs is to help students negotiate their shared problems face to face, in an integrative and peaceful manner through the facilitation of a peer. The expected outcome is for the disputing students to renegotiate their problems in the presence and facilitation of a peer mediator, instead of resorting to destructive and violent conflict resolution strategies when they fail to reach a constructive, fair and peaceful agreement on their own.

Effect of conflict resolution and peer mediation training on empathy skills

The main aim of this research is to examine effect of conflict resolution and peer mediation training on level of empathic skills of senior students in Psychological Counseling and Guidance department.

Evaluation of the Effects of Conflict Resolution, Peace Education and Peer Mediation: A Meta-Analysis Study

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of conflict resolution, peace education and peer mediation on the conflict resolution skills of students via meta-analysis method. 23 studies were determined to be inaccordance with the study criteria. According to research findings conflict resolution, peace education and peer mediation education programs have a wide range of effect on the conflict resolution skills of students.

Examining the Effects of Negotiation and Peer Mediation on Students’ Conflict Resolution and Problem-Solving Skills

Research shows that conflicts in schools cannot be resolved by constructive and peaceful means and teachers cannot support students sufficiently. To solve this problem, the Negotiation and Peer Mediation Training Program was experimented on the fourth-, fifth- and sixth-grade students in this study aiming to examine the effects of the Negotiation and Peer Mediation Training Program on conflict resolution and problem-solving skills. The study was conducted on 44 students attending the “Children’s University” summer school. The research was carried out in the pretest-posttest design without control group.

High School Students’ Perceptions of Their Proficiency with Conflict Resolution after Participation in Peer Mediation Training

Many schools do not have the time or necessary resources to address problems between and among students on an individual basis. Many schools have chosen to implement a peer mediation program within their school day to address these concerns. The goal of the study is to determine whether providing students with the tools for peer mediation and conflict resolution will improve their self-perceptions of their own abilities regarding conflict resolution.

Mediation in Schools: Tapping the Potential

This article explores the developing role of mediation as a conflict resolution process in schools. It gives an accepted definition and clarifies the purposes of mediation, outlining the range of contexts in and beyond schools in which mediation is already offered as a formal intervention.

Peer Mediation as a Mechanism for Resolution of Inter-Personal Conflicts among Students

This study was set out to assist students of A.M.E Zion Girls Senior High School to resolve their inter-personal conflicts which affected their academic performance and marred their social relationship using peer mediation. Interview, questionnaire, and observation were the instruments used to collect data from 60 students for the study.

Peer mediation in schools

Mediation is a conflict resolution process run by a specialist third party who called mediator. Mediation process focuses on conflict resolution. Conflict in school setting is a major problem for educators and administrators and it is prevalent and common all over the world. It may induce act of violence. There is a strong tendency to use an accusive and defensive language among people. People are not naturally use these unbeseeming communication patterns but learn it from her/his environment. That’s why it’s so important to upskill the children to have inclusive, reconciliatory and empathetic attitude. In this study mediation, mediation process and peer mediation will be discussed.

Peer mediators' perceptions of the mediation process

The purpose of this research was to analyze high school peer mediator students'experiences related to mediation process through their perspectives. Results of the study indicated that the mediation process was well embraced by the students and that the experience increased their self-esteem and self-confidence, developed their conflict resolution and empathetic skills, reduced student interpersonal conflicts and fights, and improved their relationships with their peers.

School Mediation, a tool against school violence

In this text, concepts about school violence, as well as the types of repetitive school violence are discussed. Besides that, an anysis is conducted of the educational public policies that prevent school voilence and promote improvements in inter-personal school coexistence in Latin-America.

School Mediation Programmes and Incidents of In-School Violence and Bullying

School mediation (or peer mediation) is an effective practice for dealing with cases of in-school violence and bullying. According to the results of this retrospective research, conducted in High-Schools of the Municipality of Fyli (Athens metropolitan area, Greece), school mediation programmes contribute to: activating students wishing to help their classmates, taking responsibility and developing social/communication skills of the students involved. At the same time, it is important to point out the substantial gender differentiation in attitudes both towards incidents of in-school violence and bullying, but also to school mediation programmes.